FPIES (Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome) is a type of food allergy that affects the gastrointestinal system. It typically affects infants and young children and is characterized by severe vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration.
The exact cause of FPIES (Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome) is not fully understood, but there are several theories behind its etiology. Here are some examples:

1. Immune system response:

FPIES is thought to be caused by an abnormal immune system response to certain food proteins. Specifically, it is believed that the immune system in children with FPIES overreacts to certain food proteins, leading to inflammation and damage to the gastrointestinal tract.

2. Genetics:

There may be a genetic component to FPIES. Studies have shown that children with a family history of food allergies, eczema, or asthma may be at increased risk for developing FPIES.

3. Delayed immune response:

Unlike other food allergies, FPIES does not involve an immediate allergic response. Instead, FPIES is characterized by a delayed immune response, which can make it difficult to diagnose.

4. Gut microbiome:

The gut microbiome, which is the collection of microorganisms that live in the digestive tract, may play a role in the development of FPIES. Some studies have suggested that an imbalance in the gut microbiome may contribute to the development of food allergies, including FPIES.

5. Environmental factors:

Exposure to certain environmental factors, such as pollution or toxins, may increase the risk of developing FPIES. However, more research is needed to fully understand the role of environmental factors in the development of FPIES.
It’s important to note that while these theories provide some insight into the development of FPIES, more research is needed to fully understand the underlying causes of this condition.

Treatment Approaches

There are several non-pharmacological treatments that have been suggested for managing FPIES symptoms. Here are some evidence-based examples:

1. Elimination Diet:

The most effective non-pharmacological treatment for FPIES is an elimination diet. This involves identifying and eliminating the specific food(s) that trigger FPIES symptoms. Foods that are commonly associated with FPIES include cow’s milk, soy, and grains such as rice and oats.

2. Hydrolyzed Formula:

For infants who are unable to tolerate breast milk or traditional formula, a hydrolyzed formula may be recommended. This type of formula is easier to digest and less likely to trigger FPIES symptoms.

3. Probiotics:

Some studies suggest that probiotics may be beneficial for managing FPIES symptoms. Probiotics can help promote healthy gut bacteria and reduce inflammation in the gut.

4. Hypoallergenic Diet:

In some cases, a hypoallergenic diet may be recommended. This involves eliminating all potential food allergens from the diet and gradually reintroducing them one at a time to identify the specific trigger(s) of FPIES symptoms.

5. Nutritional Support:

Infants and young children with FPIES may experience nutritional deficiencies due to vomiting and diarrhea. Nutritional support may include the use of oral rehydration solutions, intravenous fluids and vitamin/mineral supplementation. These help to manage dehydration, maintain electrolyte balance and nutrient deficiencies.

6. Food Sensitivity Testing:

Food sensitivity testing can be useful in identifying potential trigger foods that may be causing symptoms. While there is no specific test for FPIES, food sensitivity testing can help identify foods that your child may be reacting to. The two most common types of food sensitivity tests are IgE and IgG tests. IgE tests measure the body’s immediate immune response to specific foods, while IgG tests measure the body’s delayed immune response to specific foods. While food sensitivity testing is not a definitive diagnostic tool for FPIES, it can help guide an elimination diet and identify potential trigger foods. However, it’s important to note that food sensitivity testing should be interpreted in the context of a complete medical history and physical examination. It’s important to work with a healthcare professional to interpret the results and develop an appropriate treatment plan. Click here for more information on food sensitivity testing.


It’s important to note that these non-pharmacological treatments should be implemented under the guidance of a healthcare professional. If you suspect that your child has FPIES, it’s important to seek medical attention and receive a proper diagnosis and treatment plan. Click here to book an appointment.


Mouth breathing can seem like a small issue, but it can actually lead to a range of problems, from bad breath and difficulty sleeping to developmental issues in children. If you notice that your child is constantly breathing through their mouth, it’s important to take action. Here are 5 ways to combat mouth breathing in kids and ensure that your child is breathing properly.

1. Identify the Root Cause

The first step to combating mouth breathing is determining the root cause. Some common causes include allergies, enlarged tonsils or adenoids, or a deviated septum. Once you identify the cause, you can work with your child’s pediatrician to formulate a treatment plan. Treatment may involve medication, surgery or lifestyle changes like avoiding certain foods or environmental allergens.
Chronic nasal congestion may be a cause of mouth breathing in children. If structural and allergic causes have been ruled out, it may be a good idea to test for food sensitivities. Food sensitivities develop as a result of a slightly different immune response than allergies. A naturopathic doctor or functional medicine doctor can requisition a blood test that will identify any food sensitivities in your child. Sensitivities will often resolve after 3-months of abstinence at which time these foods may be re-introduced into the diet.

2. Practicing Breathing Exercises

Teaching kids proper breathing techniques can help them switch from mouth breathing to breathing through their nose. Encourage them to take long, deep breaths through their nose and exhale slowly through their mouth. You can also make it into a fun game by challenging them to see how long they can hold a deep breath in their nose or how long they can exhale.
A fantastic resource for nasal breathing exercises as well as some of the scientific literature around mouth breathing vs. nasal breathing can be found through the Buteyko Clinic

3. Promote Good Sleep Hygiene

Many kids breathe through their mouth while sleeping, so it’s crucial to establish good sleep hygiene to prevent mouth breathing before it starts. Make sure your child is sleeping on their back or side, as sleeping on the stomach can encourage mouth breathing. You may also consider using a humidifier, which can help to keep sinuses moisturized and reduce inflammation.
Here is a checklist for establishing good sleep hygiene in kids:
✅ Establish a consistent bedtime routine and consistent wake-up time every day.
✅ Avoid caffeinated drinks, large meals, and vigorous exercise late in the day.
✅ Create a calm, relaxing atmosphere in the bedroom by dimming lights and avoiding screens.
✅ Avoid napping during the day. If naps are necessary, keep them short (15-30 minutes) and at the same time each day.
✅ Keep bedroom temperature comfortable. A cool but not cold room of around 65 degrees is ideal for sleep.
✅ Make sure your child’s mattress is comfortable and supportive to ensure quality rest.
✅ Exercise regularly, although not too close to bedtime as this can make it harder to fall asleep quickly.
✅ Encourage your child to find activities that help them relax before bedtime such as reading or taking a warm bath or shower in preparation for sleep

4. Maintain Proper Oral Hygiene

Mouth breathing can cause dry mouth, which can lead to a range of oral health problems. Encourage your child to brush their teeth twice daily and to floss regularly to remove any debris that may have accumulated between their teeth. Also, make sure they stay hydrated so that their mouth stays moist and saliva can flow normally.

5. Be a Positive Role Model

Lastly, it’s important to lead by example. Kids are extremely observant, so if they see their parents breathing through their mouth, it can become normalized. Pay attention to your own breathing habits and make sure you practice good nasal breathing techniques in front of your kids. You can even lead by example by doing breathing exercises or attending yoga classes together.


Mouth breathing may seem like a small issue, but it can lead to a range of problems for kids. By taking action early and addressing the root cause, you can help your child learn better breathing techniques and combat mouth breathing. Encouraging proper nasal breathing techniques, practicing good sleep hygiene, promoting oral health, and being a positive role model are all excellent strategies for combatting mouth breathing in children. If you’re worried about your child’s breathing habits, talk to their naturopath or pediatrician to determine the best course of action.


As parents, we all want the best for our children, and that includes making sure they’re getting the nutrition they need to grow up healthy and strong. Proper nutrition is crucial to a child’s physical and cognitive development, and it can be challenging to navigate the world of childhood nutrition. But don’t worry; I’ve got you covered. In this brief guide, I will discuss the essential nutritional requirements for kids.

1. Carbohydrates

One of the most critical components of a child’s diet is carbohydrates. They give kids energy, so it’s essential to choose the right carbs – complex carbohydrates are the way to go. These are found in whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, and they provide kids with long-lasting energy throughout the day. Avoid processed or refined carbohydrates, like white bread or sugary cereals, as these can cause an energy crash later in the day.
The amount of carbohydrates that kids need for optimal health depends on their age, gender, and physical activity level. However, as a general guideline, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children between the ages of 4 and 18 should get 45-65% of their daily calories from carbohydrates. For most children, this translates to about 130-200 grams of carbohydrates per day. Once again it is important to note that not all carbohydrates are created equal, and kids should focus on getting carbohydrates from nutritious sources such as: fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes rather than from processed or sugary foods.

2. Protein

Growing children need plenty of protein, as it is essential for building and repairing tissues. Protein can be found in a variety of foods, such as meats, beans, eggs, and dairy products. You should aim to include a source of protein in each meal, but be mindful of focusing on lean sources, like skinless chicken, fish, legumes and soy to keep saturated fats to a minimum.
The amount of protein that kids need for optimal health varies depending on their age, gender, and physical activity level. However, as a general guideline, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children between the ages of 4 and 13 should get about 0.95 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight per day, while children between the ages of 14 and 18 should get about 0.85 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight per day.
Good sources of protein for kids include lean meats, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, beans, legumes, and soy products. It’s important to encourage kids to eat a variety of protein-rich foods to ensure that they are getting all of the essential amino acids that their bodies need for growth and development. In general, it’s best to focus on getting protein from whole foods rather than from powders or supplements.